1. Urinary changes .

The urinary system consist includes your kidneys , ureters and bladder. Kidney function gradually declines with age.

At about age 40 , you begin to lose important filtering units witin the kidneys , called nephrons. By the time you are 80, kidneys are 20 percent to 30 percent smaller than at age 20. As kidney function declines , you are more likely either to become dehydrated or to retain fluid.

Despite these changes , the kidneys have a built-in reserve capacity , and they continue to work normally as you get older. Only if you have a chronic illness , such as high blood pressure or diabetes , might these changes pose a problem.

The bladder also changes with age . Its wall become less elastic, so you can hold less urine. As a result , you may have to go to the bathroom more often. Also the bladder muscles may weaken , and the bladder may not empty completely. This increases the risk of urinary tract infections.

Urinary incontinence is more common with age . In men , incontinence can result from noncancerous enlargement of prostate gland, prostate cancer or prostate surgery . In older women , the lining of the tube through which urine passes (urethera) thins, and the tube itself shortens. The muscle that controls the passage of urine is less able to close tightly , and the pelvic muscle weaken , reducing bladder support.

Other factors that can contribute to incontinence include infections , excess weight , frequent constipation and a chronic cough. Several medications , including some used for depression , high blood pressure and heart disease , also can cause the problem .

What you can do

To preserve kidney and bladder function and prevent or manage incontinence :

Drink plenty of fluids .

However , excess fluids can result in having to go to the bathroom often . If you have problems with frequent urination at night , stop drinking liquids after about 7 p.m.

Limit or avoid alcohol and caffeine.

These beverages cause more frequent urination .
Be careful with medications .

Ask your doctor about safe use of over the counter pain relievers and other medications , including herbal and dietary supplements . Over the counter decongestants can tighten the muscles that control urine flow , making urination more difficult .

Follow a fixed bathroom schedule .

This may be more effective in preventing problems than is waiting for the need to go. Try to urinate all that you can to empty your bladder completely .

Do pelvic floor exercises .

 In both men and women , pelvic floor exercises (Kegels) can often help with mild to moderate incontinence . To do the exercises , imagine that you are trying to stop the flow of urine. Squeeze the muscles you would use and hold for a count of 10. Repeat this exercise four times a day.It may be two to three months before you begin to notice results .To maintain the benefits , keep doing the exercises.

Keep active.

Inactvity causes you to retain urine.



  • Urological society of India

    American Urological association

    European association of urology

    INTERPLAST, Germany.


    Field of Work

    All adult and paediatric urology operations
    Lower tract surgery
    Upper tract surgery
    Renal transplantation
    Percutaneous renal surgery
    Extracorporeal and intracorporeal
    Use of CO2 laser
    Use of Holmium yag laser
    Flexible ureterorenoscopy
    Vascular access for dialysis
    Reconstructive urology